Bourland in North Texas and Indian Territory During the Civil War: Fort Cobb, Fort Arbuckle & the Wichita Mountains

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Garvin County OK Surveys of 1871 and 1899

by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management         Oklahoma Township-Range Map

Below are some of the legal descriptions of places of now Gavin County mentioned on     Unless otherwise stated, these data from an 1899 survey.

Garvin County OK Surveys: Aug 1871, Sep 1871, and Sep 1899


1N 1E sec 23,      Negro Hut, 1871

1N 1E sec 32,      Negro Settlement, G.H., 1871

1N 1E sec 34,      Road to Texas, 1871

1N 1E sec 33,      Road to Fort Sill, 1871

1N 1E sec 25,      (water) spring, 1871

1N 1E sec 15,      Sandy Creek, 1871

1N 1W sec 25,    Fort Arbuckle, 1871. ....Free Blacks.  The Chickasaw Legislature passed on Apr 13, 1861 resolutions to limit the size of the military reservations to one (1) square mile. Before 1861 the Fort Arbuckle reservation had been larger than the District of Columbia, that had served as a safe harbor for free blacks.  repeat: "served as a safe harbor for free blacks".

1N 1E sec 25,      Store, Stables, 1871

1N 1E sec 25,      Grave Yard, 1871

1N 1E sec 26,      Mrs. Courtney, 1871      Probably Montford Johnson's mother, Rebecca Courtney, m-1836 to Charles B. "Bogy". Johnson.    Also, this is possibly the family for whom Courtney Flatts was named.  Courtney Flatts is near Petersburg, on the now Love-Jefferson County line, immediately north of Red River 

Editor's note:  Charles B. Johnson's nickname was "Boggy" that had nothing to do with the proximity to the place Boggy Depot.    per Johnson's  The Chickasaw Rancher, p11.

1N 1E sec 36,      Initial Monument, 1871   ... all of now Oklahoma, save The Panhandle, was surveyed from this rock one mile from Fort Arbuckle.

1N 1E sec 25,      Houses [? Henry House, Henry House Creek], 1871

1N 1E sec 18,      Road to Cherokee Town, 1871.

1N 1E sec 24,      To Cherokee Town (road), 1871.

1N 1W sec 26,     Vander Creek

1N 1W sec 9,       Sandy Creek

1N 1W sec 19,     Rock Creek

1N 1W sec 31,      Hennepin

1N 2W sec 34,      Massa Creek

1N 2W sec 25,      Eightmile Creek

1N 3W sec 33,      Ignorant Branch

1N 3W sec 29,      Bear Creek

1N 3W sec 19,      Sandy Creek

1N 3W sec 21,      Robberson

1N 3W sec 9,       Cotton Creek

1N 3W sec 3,       Honey Creek

2N 1E sec 20,       Doak School

2N 1E sec 14,       Wynnewood

2N 1E sec 22,       Pitchlynn’s, 1871.

2N 1E sec 25,       Carris School

2N 1W sec 22,      Brady

2N 2E sec 26,       Chigley Sandy Creek, named for Nelson Chigley, Chigley Flatt

2N 2E sec 32/33,  Wynnewood and Sulphur Springs Road

2N 2E sec 5,        Nigger Sandy Creek

2N 2E sec 8,       Turkey Sandy Creek

2N 2E sec 11, 12, Wynnewood and Roff Road

2N 2E sec 30,       Kickapoo Sandy Creek

2N 3E sec 32,       Rock Creek

2N 3E sec 30,       Big Sandy Creek

2N 3E sec 30,       Iona

2N 3E sec 28,       Guy Sandy Creek

2N 3E sec 2,         Canadian Sandy Creek

2N 3W sec 14,15     (not on survey)  .... Your editor was reared on a 3,000-ac farm-ranch that spanned about 3 miles on the south bank of Rush Creek directly north of Lookout Mountain of the Table Top Mountains.    My parents leased this property from banker Bailey Stephens of Elgin OK, originally of Maysville OK.

2N 3W sec 26,       (not on survey)  .... Lookout Mountain, Table Top Mountains 

2N 3W sec 19,      Wildcat Creek

2N 2W sec 27,     Elmore (later Elmore City, where your editor graduated from high school in 1960.)

3N 3E sec 36,       Canadian Sandy Creek

2N 3E sec 6/5,      Wynne Wood-Roff Road

3N 1E sec 9,         Pauls Valley

3N IE sec 25,      Cherokee Town (Cherokeetown or Cherokee Village), 1871 survey, in NW 1/4, 0.5 mile east of the intersection of the Little Sandy Creek and Washita River at rock-bottom Cherokee Crossing.   Five roads intersected at Cherokee Town, so it was a major stagecoach stop.    ... in Old Pontotoc County (1855-1907), Chickasaw Nation, I.T.

Editor's note:  Everett Peer Baker described Cherokeetown and his working for William Shirley in WPA Interview #1029 conducted by Field Worker: Maurice R. Anderson on:    ..

3N 1E sec 24,        Road to Okmulgee, 1871.

3N 1E sec 25,        Road to Boggy Depot, 1871

3N 1E sec 25,        Road to Fort Gibson, 1871

3N 1E sec 26, 24,   Little Sandy Creek, 1871

3N 1E sec 26,       Cherokee Sandy Creek-Washita River intersects at NE 1/4 of sec 26, on the east bank of the Washita; therefore, the name of Little Sandy Creek changed to Cherokee Sandy Creek between the 1871 and 1899 survey maps. .... Cherokee Town Stage Stop before 1860 SW ¼ of NW ¼ of section 26, township 3N., range 1E. on east bank of the Washita River.

3N 1E sec 27,        [Tom] Waits' Home, 1871.

3N 2E sec 15,        Cherokee Sandy Creek, 1899.

3N 3E sec 29,        Cherokee Sandy Creek, 1899.

3N 1E sec 6,          Wm Williams’ [Home], 1871 survey.       

William Garrard "Caddo Bill" Williams, m-Anna Eastman (a Caddo), owned the land where the 1865 meeting at Camp Napoleon (now Verden, Grady County OK) was held.  He arrived on the Washita, in what is now Caddo County in 1859 to work for the traders during his first years there.   During the Civil War, he served in George Washington's Caddo Reserve Squadron of the Confederacy.   His wife was a member of the Caddo tribe and he soon embarked in cattle ranching on his own account. He died in El Reno, about 1912.

                                   Whitebead Caddos, CSA, Co A

Capt. George Washington, Co A                 Lt. Johnson Washington, Co A

Lt. Wm. G. Williams, Co A                            Lt. Cawweewahnow, Co A


                                 Peneteka Comanches, CSA, Co B

Capt. Esopah [Asapah], Co B                      Lt. Booewasiska, Co B

Lt. Phil McCusky, Co B                                Lt. Esetuet, Co B

 per Neil R. Johnson's The Chickasaw Rancher (2001) that addresses the area of now Fox, Carter Co OK, just south southwest of Elmore City, Garvin Co OK, before, during, and after the Civil War era.

Editor's note:  Wm. Garrard Williams' family:.....Sidney Williams married Margaret Garrard was born Jan 16, 1818, they married in Jan 16,1834, she died in 1892.children are 1-Mary Jane Williams b.Feb2,1835, m-John D. Maupin... 2-Maria Brawner Williams b. July 27,1837.....3-William Garrard Williams b.Nov12,1839, lived Mingo, I.T.; ...4-Daniel Garrard Williams b. Jan 27,1842.....5-Lucy Toulmin Williams b. March,1845.....6-Margaret Talbot Williams b. June16,1848.... 7-James Henry Williams b.Nov.2,1856.

3N 1E sec 8, 9,        Smith Paul’s Field (corn), 1871  

Editor's note: Read an interview with Smith Paul's dau, Mississippi "Sippia" (Paul) Arnold Hull, b-1843 five miles from Fort Arbuckle 

3N 1E sec 17,          Smith Paul’s Corn Crib, 1871

3N 1E sec 10,       George Gardiner/Gardiner, 1871 Zack Taylor Gardner, lived Wynnewood, Garvin Co OK, Caddo Indian Battn, Co G (in 1858, he lived near Ft Arbuckle, I.T.)    ....from Gideon book--Landed Estates, Country Seats (1901), p653f.  Zach Gardner, b-Aug 15 1829 MS, son of Rebecca Johnson and Isaac Gardner both are Choctaw- moved to Indian Territory in 1832 to the Rush Creek area, later known as Pauls valley-he remained in this area all his life. ....Attended Spencer Academy-twice: m.1-Elsie Mackey, 1 ch, m.2-Sept 8, 1852 a Choctaw, Livinia McKinney, 4 ch.  In the Civil war under Confed. Major George Washington Caddo Indian Battalion guarding the Indian Territory into Texas.

3N 1E sec 30, 31,     Iron Ore, 1871

3N 1E sec 2,             Peavine Creek

3N 1E sec 34,    Hall’s, 1871, ... in 1851 came to build Fort Arbuckle, Margaret Hall, m-Wm L. Moncrief.

3N 1E sec 17,           [later Paul's] Valley & Fort Sill Road, 1871

3N 1E sec 4,        George Washington’s [Home, one of his homes], 1871 survey, NW 1/4.   Confederate Major George Washington, d-1883, is represented in the Confederate Civil War records as: "Major George Washington, Hereditary Chief of the Whitebead Band of the Caddo  Hasinai Tribe," the "last military officer to surrender, doing so immediately after Gov. Winchester Colbert at Tishomingo on July 16, 1865."  Washington had a large farm, with Washington Creek flowing though it, across the Washita River from Whitebead.  George Washington was famous for his mule-toed hogs.  Washington was already located on this property since 1839 before the Jul 1, 1859 Arbuckle Treaty that mandated that the Hasinai Caddo of the Brazos Reserve of Young County, TX be moved to the now Anadarko OK area.   Washington's band of Whitebead Caddos were friendly with, and kept in touch with, the Caddos of the Brazos Reserve of Texas.  We are studying the Whitebead family.  (see the Henry Jackson 1869 map.)    ....See Cecile Elkins-Carter's Caddo Indians: Where We Come From, Univ of Okla Press (1995) pp 27-342ff, 394n.2.

3N  1W sec 2,          [Not on survey].              William Grant Kimberlin built a house in the late 1860s on now Kimberlin Road, (Exit 74 of I-35, one-third mile east on the north side).  This house is just over a mile due east  town site of White Bead Hill.  This house burned in 1896 and a he built a 2-story house that is still standing.    W.G. Kimberlin (1842 Washington Co KY-1927 Garvin Co OK, Whitebead) served CSA 12th Missouri Cavalry, Co D, Pvt.      

3N 1W sec 3,             Whitebead, 1899      ... .... an Aug 26, 1842 meeting documented in Landrum's HISTORY OF GRAYSON COUNTY (TX) pages 4 and 5 ... that was recently put online. George Gray, no death date; Caddo Indian Agent 1819-1829 in Arkansas and Louisiana; ... one W.R. Gray (d-1902, middle age), m-a Caddo per MINCO MINSTREL ...     Robert Simpson Neighbors recorded that this Aug 26, 1842 meeting took place in "a Caddo village above the Chickasaw Nation."  

James Bourland
James A. Caldwell
Holland Coffee
Joseph Durst
James Gamble
George Gray, Grey ...W.R. Gray in ONLY one record
Slone Love
F.R. Lubbock
Thomas Ingles Smith
Ethan Stroud
Leonard H. Williams

3N 1W sec 3,           [Not on survey]              William Grant Kimberlin funded the construction of Pierce Institute at White Bead, which was destroyed in 1905 by a tornado, that year he built Kimberlin Chapel, a Methodist church, which still stands at Whitebead, using the lumber from the old Pierce Institute.   The Methodist Conference of I.T. was held here two years.  

3N 2W sec 16,        Antioch  (4 miles east of where your editor was reared)

3N 2W sec 19,        Panther Creek

3N 2W sec 15,        Rush Creek

3N 2W sec 17,        [Fort] Cobb Trail, 1871

3N 3E sec 6,           Willow Sandy Creek

3N 3E sec 8,          Wynne Wood and Pauls Valley Road

3N 3W sec 35,       Panther Creek

3N 3W sec 33,       Noon Creek, flows into Rush Creek

3N 4W sec 23,       Purdy  (4 miles west of where your editor was reared)

3N 4W sec 26,       Rush Creek

4N 3E sec 30,         Keil Sandy Creek

4N 3E sec 17,        Telephone Line

4N 2E sec 8,         Telephone Line

4N 3E sec 1,          McGee

4N 3E sec 14,        Spring Creek

4N 1W sec 1,         North of Paoli on the McClain-Garvin County line.  

 "... The column (Union Colonel Emory's) had halted near the present McClain-Garvin County line, north of the present town of Paoli. From here [Union] Captain (S.D.) Sturgis with his cavalry troops and [Union] Lieutenant (W.W.) Averell turned back along the trail they had just traveled, and met the pursuing forces (30 Texans under Captain Alfred Johnson of Collin County TX) a few miles from present Pauls Valley in Garvin County, east (or northeast) of the Washita. From available records, this encounter on May 5, 1861, was the first between the armed forces of the Union Army and the Southern Confederacy in the Indian Territory at the outbreak of the Civil War. ..."   per Chronicles of Oklahoma, v39(1961)n1p12, "Lieutenant Averell's Ride at the Outbreak of the Civil War" by Muriel H. Wright.

Please note that Muriel Wright says the main column of Colonel Emory, marching north from Ft Arbuckle, had halted near the McClain County line north of Paoli on May 5, 1861. It was from here that Captain Sturgis and Lt. Averell  took a squadron of cavalry back along the trail they had just traveled (about 5-7) miles and confronted the Texans a few miles (perhaps 1-3 and somewhere along US Hwy 77 and the RR) north of present Pauls Valley, east (or northeast) of the Washita River.

May 10th, 1861  "... The enemy numbered between 850 and 900. Six companies of which were experienced and well mounted dragoons. On the same morning a spy company under command of Capt. A. Johnson, was dispatched in pursuit of the enemy with instructions to push on as far as practicable, and ascertain all that could be learned necessary to the success of the expedition. ..."  per The Standard (Clarksville TX), May 18, 1861, p2c3.

The Federals were led by the famous scout Black Beaver.  ... The Texans had been closely following Colonel Emory's column for several days.

.JOHNSON, Alfred Johnson (1814 AL-Feb 3, 1863 Arkansas Post, AR) m-Melissa Kitching;  1860 Collin Co TX cen p22; Darnell's 18th Cav, Co E, Capt (Capt, Alf Johnson's Spy Co, part of Darnell's 18th Cav, Co E, TX CSA)     The Texans were Confederate sympathizing Texas State Troops.

4N 1W sec 26,       Jesse Paul, 1871.

4N 1W sec 28,        Ingraham’s, 1871 survey, .....Henry Ingram

4N 2W sec 16, 21,   Beef Creek (now Maysville, where your editor attended high school, 1956-1958.) ..... Beef Creek Stage Stop March 1878, SW ¼ of section 16, twp 4N ran 2W.

4N 4W sec 15,        Erin Springs (Elm Springs, renamed in 1878 to Erin Springs.     Kickapoo Flatts, on the south side of the Washita River from  Elm Springs to Beef Creek (now Maysville).   "I moved to Kickapoo Flatts, about five miles west of Whitebead Hill." per Jesse Chipman, Indian Pioneer Papers #8293."  (see 1869 Henry Jackson map that shows Kickapoo Flat between now Chickasha and Elm Springs.) .....

During the Civil War: "Capt. Sam B. Savage’s Company D including Lt. John H. Graham and Lt. John Graham Reeves of L.M. Martin’s 5th Tx Partisan Rangers was stationed at Camp Elm Springs on Jun 3, 1864." per CSRs. .... Capt. W.H. Hooks’ Co D and Capt. W.R. Elliott’s Co I of DeMorse’s Tx 29th Cavalry visited Elm Springs on Apr 4, 1863. per Northern Standard, Clarksville TX (Apr 25, 1863, p2c1)...... In Col. D.H. Cooper’s confidential May 13, 1865 letter to TST Brig-Gen J.W. Throckmorton, he suggested that they meet May 26th, 1865 at Elm Springs.  per ORsIv48/2[S#102]p1301

4N 4W sec 26,        Round Creek intersects with Washita River

4N 4W sec 17,        Lowimore [Larimore] Creek 



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 Patricia Adkins-Rochette        03/20/2013     

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Bourland in North Texas and Indian Territory During the Civil War: Fort Cobb, Fort Arbuckle & the Wichita Mountains